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Educational Wii Games Video for Children

Author: Indria Bolinggi

Educational Wii games video for children

People understand that Wii is the most popular video game consoles which easily understood for all family members. The wii features a motion sensitive controller that can quickly sense the user’s movements and translate them into on screen action. By playing Wii games video children are able to learn the rules of popular games as well as participate.

Children love to play video games and experts say spending sometime doing can help your children hand and eye coordination. Wii games video should certainly be considered as an educational addition. Since it is important for children to become active from an early age, the Wii Sports package that comes with the gaming console is a good one to start with.

The games in Wii sport are based more on motion and simple enough for children to play with. These games are proving to be much more interactive and contribute to the promotion of physical activities. Wii Sports is the best for fun exercise. The study, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, found that playing virtual sports such as tennis, boxing and bowling on Wii games video burned more than 50% more energy than playing sedentary computer games such as Xbox or PS3.

There are another educational wii games video, such as Big Brain Academy that allow anyone to test intelligence and improve scores. This game will challenge children on logical thinking and math. The game tests players’ abilities and speed at solving various problems, involving skills like counting, recognizing patterns, and size comparisons.

You may check on my recommendation for another educational wii games video that suitable for children from preschooler to teenager. We should make sure that wii games video can stimulate learning of facts and skills such as strategic thinking, creativity, cooperation and innovative thinking, which are important skills in the information society.

After all we need to pay attention with the amount of time a child plays the Wii game video so that they don’t become too dependent upon it. Children should still be exploring their skill and developing their creativity with other vigorous activity.

About the Author:

Written by Indria Bolinggi, a teacher and a mother. For further information and guide of choosing various toys and games please visit www.besttoys-guide.com

Article Source: ArticlesBase.com - Educational Wii games video for children

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Television or Media Industry is attracting people to enjoy and work

Author: Anisha Cole

Entertainment industry is getting more and more highlighted these days. Or to be more correct it’s a kind of necessity without which we cannot survive. This is simply because of the stressful environment surrounding us. We exhaust ourselves in loads of work for the entire day and our system is such that we would never like to divert our minds if there is nothing better. And this is fulfilled by the media and our entertainment industry. Think yourself is there anything better than sitting back and relaxing on your bed and watching movies and television shows. What’s best if we get to watch shows online shows according to your own convenient time, one of the best websites available for watching shows is http://www.watch-simpsons-online.net/ Both TV shows and movies are combined together to form one ground that is entertainment. Music is also there but we regard it as a part of movies itself.
Relaxing gives joy and takes you away from the tensions of the day. TV shows and movies are becoming a passion for each person today. Do you know why, simply because they give you a completely relaxed atmosphere? This is really interesting and something which is even more exciting than this is to work in such an atmosphere where you do have to work but with enjoyment. Millions and billions of people across the nation are looking for a job in media. Music is there for people at all ages while ample of channels are working to entertain people with TV shows everyday.
A new episode gets flashed everyday generally or at least within a week. Trend for these shows has changed completely and is changing day by day because of the entrance of fresh talent. Girls and guys coming from different culture join these channels to nourish them with latest ideas of developing exciting shows. This includes game shows, music shows, reality shows, dance competition, comedy etc.

Classical shows are also there for women and even young adults who are fond of them. Like Desperate Housewives http://www.watch-desperate-housewives-online.com/ though the styles had changed still the TV shows are being developed keeping in mind the interest of people today. This and a lot more is there to grab the attention of younger generation who are fascinated by the latest trends. Somehow this is fair enough as people should work according to their interest only. There is one saying ”if you love what you are doing, you’ll be successful”. It’s a truth if you love to work in a music album or a television channel or a movie or any other profession, it is an assurance that you’ll be successful.

Due to the interests of many people the scope of the industry is also developing increasingly. Various colleges and professional institutes have opened where skilled teachers teach the skills of developing the fresh talent in the students. Plenty of jobs are being offered and sometimes direct placements are done through the institutes itself where you get handsome packages, comfortable and rocking life. Job seekers can log on to the various portals which are available on the internet too. This is one of the most flexible and easiest ways of searching a job and even getting one today. So all you need to do is to fill in the contact form along with other required details and start working with the famous brands and the most happing industry. Accomplish your dreams easily.

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Article Source: ArticlesBase.com - Television or Media Industry is attracting people to enjoy and work

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Belajar Seni via www.metmuseum.org

Untuk belajar tentang seni secara gratis bisa masuk ke www.metmuseum.org. Disini tersedia banyak materi untuk belajar tentang seni, suku bangsa, sejarah, antropologi dan lainnya. Sebagian besar berkaitan erat dengan seni. Untuk saat ini materi yang tersedia masih dalam bahasa Inggris.

Entah apa perlu diterjemahkan ke bahasa Indonesia semua materi yang ada. Kalau ingin membaca garis besarnya dalam bahasa Indonesia, silakan gunakan Google Translate.
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Frankfurt School

The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist critical theory, social research, and philosophy. The grouping emerged at the Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung) of the University of Frankfurt am Main in Germany when Max Horkheimer became the Institute's director in 1930. The term "Frankfurt School" is an informal term used to designate the thinkers affiliated with the Institute for Social Research or who were influenced by it. It is not the title of any institution, and the main thinkers of the Frankfurt School did not use the term to describe themselves.

The Frankfurt School gathered together dissident Marxists, severe critics of capitalism who believed that some of Marx's followers had come to parrot a narrow selection of Marx's ideas, usually in defense of orthodox Communist or Social-Democratic parties. Influenced especially by the failure of working-class revolutions in Western Europe after World War I and by the rise of Nazism in an economically and technologically advanced nation (Germany), they took up the task of choosing what parts of Marx's thought might serve to clarify social conditions that Marx himself had never seen. They drew on other schools of thought to fill in Marx's perceived omissions. Max Weber exerted a major influence, as did Sigmund Freud (as in Herbert Marcuse's Freudo-Marxist synthesis in the 1954 work Eros and Civilization). Their emphasis on the "critical" component of theory was derived significantly from their attempt to overcome the limits of positivism, crude materialism, and phenomenology by returning to Kant's critical philosophy and its successors in German idealism, principally Hegel's philosophy, with its emphasis on negation and contradiction as inherent properties of reality. A key influence also came from the publication in the 1930s of Marx's Economic-Philosophical Manuscripts and The German Ideology, which showed the continuity with Hegelianism that underlay Marx's thought. Marcuse was one of the first to articulate the theoretical significance of these texts.

Critical theory
Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society. It is a label used by the Frankfurt School, their intellectual and social network, and those influenced by them intellectually to describe their own work. The work of the School is oriented toward radical social change, in contradistinction to "traditional theory," i.e. theory in the positivistic, scientistic, or purely observational mode. In literature and literary criticism and cultural studies, by contrast, "critical theory" means something quite different, namely theory used in criticism.

The original critical social theorists were Marxists, and there is some evidence that in their choice of the phrase "critical theory of society" they were in part influenced by its sounding less politically controversial than "Marxism". Nevertheless there were other substantive reasons for this choice. First, they were explicitly linking up with the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, where the term critique meant philosophical reflection on the limits of claims made for certain kinds of knowledge and a direct connection between such critique and the emphasis on moral autonomy. In an intellectual context defined by dogmatic positivism and scientism on the one hand and dogmatic "scientific socialism" on the other, critical theory meant to rehabilitate through its philosophically critical approach an orientation toward revolutionary agency, or at least its possibility, at a time when it seemed in decline.

Second, in the context of both Marxist-Leninist and Social-Democratic orthodoxy, which emphasized Marxism as a new kind of positive science, they were linking up with the implicit epistemology of Karl Marx's work, which presented itself as critique, as in Marx's "Capital: A Critique of Political Economy". That is, they emphasized that Marx was attempting to create a new kind of critical analysis oriented toward the unity of theory and revolutionary practice rather than a new kind of positive science. Critique in this Marxian sense meant taking the ideology of a society (e.g. "freedom of the individual" or "equality" under capitalism) and critiquing it by comparing it with the social reality of that very society (e.g. subordination of the individual to the class structure or real social inequality under capitalism). It also, especially in the Frankfurt School version, meant critiquing the existing social reality in terms of the potential for human freedom and happiness that existed within that same reality (e.g. using technologies for the exploitation of nature that could be used for the conservation of nature).

The First Phase
The intellectual influences on and theoretical focus of the first generation of Frankfurt School critical theorists can be summarized as follows:

The historical situation: Transition from small-scale entrepreneurial capitalism to monopoly capitalism and imperialism; socialist labor movement grows, turns reformist; emergence of warfare/welfare state; Russian revolution and rise of Communism; neotechnic period; emergence of mass media and mass culture, "modern" art; rise of Naziism.

Weberian theory: comparative historical analysis of Western rationalism in capitalism, the modern state, secular scientific rationality, culture, and religion; analysis of the forms of domination in general and of modern rational-legal bureaucratic domination in particular; articulation of the distinctive, hermeneutic method of the social sciences.

Freudian theory: critique of the repressive structure of the "reality principle" of advance civilization and of the normal neurosis of everyday life; discovery of the unconscious, primary-process thinking, and the impact of the Oedipus complex and of anxiety on psychic life; analysis of the psychic bases of authoritarianism and irrational social behavior, psychic Thermidor.

Critique of Positivism: critique of positivism as philosophy, as scientific methodology, as political ideology, and as everyday conformism; rehabilitation of --- negative --- dialectic, return to Hegel; appropriation of critical elements in phenomenology, historicism, existentialism, critique of their ahistorical, idealist tendencies; critique of logical positivism and pragmatism.

Aesthetic modernism: critique of "false" and reified experience by breaking through its traditional forms and language; projection of alternative modes of existence and experience; liberation of the unconscious; consciousness of unique, modern situation; appropriation of Kafka, Proust, Schoenberg, Breton; critique of the culture industry and "affirmative" culture; aesthetic utopia.

Marxian theory: critique of bourgeois ideology; critique of alienated labor; historical materialism; history as class struggle and exploitation of labor in different modes of production; systems analysis of capitalism as extraction of surplus labor through free labor in the free market; unity of theory and practice; analysis for the sake of revolution, socialist democracy, classless society.

Culture theory: critique of mass culture as suppression and absorption of negation, as integration into status quo; critique of Western culture as culture of domination of external and internal nature; dialectic differentiation of emancipatory and repressive dimensions of elite culture; Nietzsche's transvaluation and Schiller's aesthetic education.

These influences combined to create the Critical Theory of Culture (First Generation): Responding to the intensification of unfreedom and irrationality in industrial, advanced capitalist society---culminating in fascism---critical theory is a comprehensive, ideology-critical, historically self-reflective, body of theory aiming simultaneously to explain and combat domination and alienation and help bring about a rational, humane, democratic, and socialist society. The critical theorists developed an integrated theory of the economic, political, cultural, and psychological domination structures of advanced industrial civilization, and of the dialectic through which the emancipatory potential of modern society is suppressed and its rationality turns into a positivistic rationality of domination leading to barbarism.

Major theorists include: Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno, Walter Benjamin, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowental, Friedrich Pollock, Erich Fromm.

Major works include: Horkheimer and Adorno, The Dialectic of Enlightenment; Horkheimer, The Eclipse of Reason, Critical Theory; Adorno, Minima Moralia, The Authoritarian Personality, Prisms, Aesthetic Theory, Negative Dialectics, Introduction to the Sociology of Music, Philosophy of Modern Music, Notes to Literature, Hegel, Mahler, Wagner; Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of its Mechanical Reproduction, Theses on the Philosophy of History, The Paris Arcades; Marcuse, Reason and Revolution, Eros and Civilization, One-Dimensional Man, Essay on Liberation, Negations, Soviet Marxism, Studies in Critical Philosophy, Counterrevolution and revolt, Hegel's Ontology; Lowenthal, Literature, Popular Culture, and Society; Fromm, Escape from Freedom.

The Institute made major contributions in two areas relating to the possibility of rational human subjects, i.e. individuals who could act rationally to take charge of their own society and their own history. The first consisted of social phenomena previously considered in Marxism as part of the "superstructure" or as ideology: personality, family and authority structures (its first book publication bore the title Studies of Authority and the Family), and the realm of aesthetics and mass culture. Studies saw a common concern here in the ability of capitalism to destroy the preconditions of critical, revolutionary political consciousness. This meant arriving at a sophisticated awareness of the depth dimension in which social oppression sustains itself. It also meant the beginning of critical theory's recognition of ideology as part of the foundations of social structure. The Institute and various collaborators had a gigantic effect on (especially American) social science through their work The Authoritarian Personality, which conducted extensive empirical research, using sociological and psychoanalytic categories, in order to characterize the forces that led individuals to affiliate with or support fascist movements or parties. The study found the assertion of universals, or even truth, to be a hallmark of fascism. The Authoritarian Personality hypothesis which proceeded from this contributed greatly to the emergence of the counterculture. Erich Fromm, who in its initial period worked with the school, is credited with bringing it a psychoanalytic focus. However, Adorno and Horkheimer belittled Fromm's contributions, even though a central theme, "The Authoritarian Character," developed directly from Fromm's research on the subject.[1]

The nature of Marxism itself formed the second focus of the Institute, and in this context the concept of critical theory originated. The term served several purposes - first, it contrasted from traditional notions of theory, which were largely either positivist or scientific. Second, the term allowed them to escape the politically charged label of "Marxism." Third, it explicitly linked them with the "critical philosophy" of Immanuel Kant, where the term "critique" meant philosophical reflection on the limits of claims made for certain kinds of knowledge and a direct connection between such critique and the emphasis on moral autonomy. In an intellectual context defined by dogmatic positivism and scientism on the one hand and dogmatic "scientific socialism" on the other, critical theory meant to rehabilitate through such a philosophically critical approach an orientation toward revolutionary agency, or at least its possibility, at a time when it seemed in decline.

Finally, in the context of both Marxist-Leninist and Social-Democratic orthodoxy, which emphasized Marxism as a new kind of positive science, they were linking up with the implicit epistemology of Karl Marx's work, which presented itself as critique, as in Marx's "Capital: a critique of political economy", wanting to emphasize that Marx was attempting to create a new kind of critical analysis oriented toward the unity of theory and revolutionary practice rather than a new kind of positive science. In the 1960s, Jürgen Habermas raised the epistemological discussion to a new level in his "Knowledge and Human Interests" (1968), by identifying critical knowledge as based on principles that differentiated it either from the natural sciences or the humanities, through its orientation to self-reflection and emancipation.

Although Horkheimer's distinction between traditional and critical theory in one sense merely repeated Marx's dictum that philosophers have always interpreted the world and the point is to change it, the Institute, in its critique of ideology, took on such philosophical currents as positivism, phenomenology, existentialism, and pragmatism, with an implied critique of contemporary Marxism, which had turned dialectics into an alternate science or metaphysics. The Institute attempted to reformulate dialectics as a concrete method, continually aware of the specific social roots of thought and of the specific constellation of forces that affected the possibility of liberation. Accordingly, critical theory rejected the materialist metaphysics of orthodox Marxism. For Horkheimer and his associates, materialism meant the orientation of theory towards practice and towards the fulfillment of human needs, not a metaphysical statement about the nature of reality.

The Second Phase
The second phase of Frankfurt School critical theory centres principally on two works that rank as classics of twentieth-century thought: Horkheimer's and Adorno's Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944) and Adorno's Minima Moralia (1951). The authors wrote both works during the Institute's American exile in the Nazi period. While retaining much of the Marxian analysis, in these works critical theory has shifted its emphasis. The critique of capitalism has turned into a critique of Western civilization as a whole. Indeed, the Dialectic of Enlightenment uses the Odyssey as a paradigm for the analysis of bourgeois consciousness. Horkheimer and Adorno already present in these works many themes that have come to dominate the social thought of recent years: the domination of nature appears as central to Western civilization long before ecology had become a catchphrase of the day.

The analysis of reason now goes one stage further. The rationality of Western civilization appears as a fusion of domination and of technological rationality, bringing all of external and internal nature under the power of the human subject. In the process, however, the subject itself gets swallowed up, and no social force analogous to the proletariat can be identified that will enable the subject to emancipate itself. Hence the subtitle of Minima Moralia: "Reflections from Damaged Life". In Adorno's words,

"For since the overwhelming objectivity of historical movement in its present phase consists so far only in the dissolution of the subject, without yet giving rise to a new one, individual experience necessarily bases itself on the old subject, now historically condemned, which is still for-itself, but no longer in-itself. The subject still feels sure of its autonomy, but the nullity demonstrated to subjects by the concentration camp is already overtaking the form of subjectivity itself."

Consequently, at a time when it appears that reality itself has become ideology, the greatest contribution that critical theory can make is to explore the dialectical contradictions of individual subjective experience on the one hand, and to preserve the truth of theory on the other. Even the dialectic can become a means to domination: "Its truth or untruth, therefore, is not inherent in the method itself, but in its intention in the historical process." And this intention must be toward integral freedom and happiness: "the only philosophy which can be responsibly practised in face of despair is the attempt to contemplate all things as they would present themselves from the standpoint of redemption". How far from orthodox Marxism is Adorno's conclusion: "But beside the demand thus placed on thought, the question of the reality or unreality of redemption itself hardly matters."

Adorno, a trained musician, wrote The Philosophy of Modern Music, in which he, in essence, polemicizes against beauty itself -- because it has become part of the ideology of advanced capitalist society and the false consciousness that contributes to domination by prettifying it. Avant-garde art and music preserve the truth by capturing the reality of human suffering. Hence:

"What radical music perceives is the untransfigured suffering of man... The seismographic registration of traumatic shock becomes, at the same time, the technical structural law of music. It forbids continuity and development. Musical language is polarized according to its extreme; towards gestures of shock resembling bodily convulsions on the one hand, and on the other towards a crystalline standstill of a human being whom anxiety causes to freeze in her tracks... Modern music sees absolute oblivion as its goal. It is the surviving message of despair from the shipwrecked."

This view of modern art as producing truth only through the negation of traditional aesthetic form and traditional norms of beauty because they have become ideological is characteristic of Adorno and of the Frankfurt School generally. It has been criticized by those who do not share its conception of modern society as a false totality that renders obsolete traditional conceptions and images of beauty and harmony.

The Third Phase
From these thoughts only a short step remained to the third phase of the Frankfurt School, which coincided with the postwar period, particularly from the early 1950s to the middle 1960s. With the growth of advanced industrial society under Cold War conditions, the critical theorists recognized that the structure of capitalism and history had changed decisively, that the modes of oppression operated differently, and that the industrial working class no longer remained the determinate negation of capitalism. This led to the attempt to root the dialectic in an absolute method of negativity, as in Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man and Adorno's Negative Dialectics. During this period the Institute of Social Research re-settled in Frankfurt (although many of its associates remained in the United States), with the task not merely of continuing its research but of becoming a leading force in the sociological education and democratization of West Germany. This led to a certain systematization of the Institute's entire accumulation of empirical research and theoretical analysis.

More importantly, however, the Frankfurt School attempted to define the fate of reason in the new historical period. While Marcuse did so through analysis of structural changes in the labor process under capitalism and inherent features of the methodology of science, Horkheimer and Adorno concentrated on a re-examination of the foundation of critical theory. This effort appears in systematized form in Adorno's Negative Dialectics, which tries to redefine dialectics for an era in which "philosophy, which once seemed obsolete, lives on because the moment to realize it was missed". Negative dialectics expresses the idea of critical thought so conceived that the apparatus of domination cannot co-opt it. Its central notion, long a focal one for Horkheimer and Adorno, suggests that the original sin of thought lies in its attempt to eliminate all that is other than thought, the attempt by the subject to devour the object, the striving for identity. This reduction makes thought the accomplice of domination. Negative Dialectics rescues the "preponderance of the object", not through a naive epistemological or metaphysical realism but through a thought based on differentiation, paradox, and ruse: a "logic of disintegration". Adorno thoroughly criticizes Heidegger's fundamental ontology, which reintroduces idealistic and identity-based concepts under the guise of having overcome the philosophical tradition.

Negative Dialectics comprises a monument to the end of the tradition of the individual subject as the locus of criticism. Without a revolutionary working class, the Frankfurt School had no one to rely on but the individual subject. But, as the liberal capitalist social basis of the autonomous individual receded into the past, the dialectic based on it became more and more abstract. This stance helped prepare the way for the fourth, current phase of the Frankfurt School, shaped by the communication theory of Habermas.

Habermas's work takes the Frankfurt School's abiding interests in rationality, the human subject, democratic socialism, and the dialectical method and overcomes a set of contradictions that always weakened critical theory: the contradictions between the materialist and transcendental methods, between Marxian social theory and the individualist assumptions of critical rationalism between technical and social rationalization, and between cultural and psychological phenomena on the one hand and the economic structure of society on the other. The Frankfurt School avoided taking a stand on the precise relationship between the materialist and transcendental methods, which led to ambiguity in their writings and confusion among their readers. Habermas' epistemology synthesizes these two traditions by showing that phenomenological and transcendental analysis can be subsumed under a materialist theory of social evolution, while the materialist theory makes sense only as part of a quasi-transcendental theory of emancipatory knowledge that is the self-reflection of cultural evolution. The simultaneously empirical and transcendental nature of emancipatory knowledge becomes the foundation stone of critical theory.

By locating the conditions of rationality in the social structure of language use, Habermas moves the locus of rationality from the autonomous subject to subjects in interaction. Rationality is a property not of individuals per se, but rather of structures of undistorted communication. In this notion Habermas has overcome the ambiguous plight of the subject in critical theory. If capitalistic technological society weakens the autonomy and rationality of the subject, it is not through the domination of the individual by the apparatus but through technological rationality supplanting a describable rationality of communication. And, in his sketch of communicative ethics as the highest stage in the internal logic of the evolution of ethical systems, Habermas hints at the source of a new political practice that incorporates the imperatives of evolutionary rationality.

Frankfurt School critical theory has influenced some segments of the Left wing and leftist thought (particularly the New Left). Herbert Marcuse has occasionally been described as the theorist or intellectual progenitor of the New Left. Their critique of technology, totality, teleology and (occasionally) civilization is an influence on anarcho-primitivism. Their work also heavily influenced intellectual discourse on popular culture and scholarly popular culture studies.

Major Frankfurt school thinkers and scholars the Institut in Frankfurt

* Theodor W. Adorno
* Walter Benjamin
* Erich Fromm
* Jürgen Habermas
* Axel Honneth
* Max Horkheimer
* Siegfried Kracauer
* Otto Kirchheimer
* Leo Löwenthal
* Herbert Marcuse
* Oskar Negt
* Franz L. Neumann
* Franz Oppenheimer
* Friedrich Pollock
* Alfred Schmidt
* Alfred Sohn-Rethel
* Karl A. Wittfogel

Critics of the Frankfurt School
Several camps of criticism of the Frankfurt School have emerged. Some critics state that the intellectual perspective of the Frankfurt School is a romantic, elitist critique of mass culture with a contrived neo-Marxist guise. Another criticism, originating from the Left, is that critical theory is a form of bourgeois idealism that has no inherent relation to political practice and is totally isolated from any ongoing revolutionary movement.

Both of these criticisms were captured in Georg Lukács's phrase "Grand Hotel Abyss" as a syndrome he imputed to the members of the Frankfurt School. Karl Popper believed that the school did not live up Marx's promise of a better future:

"Marx's own condemnation of our society makes sense. For Marx's theory contains the promise of a better future. But the theory becomes vacuous and irresponsible if this promise is withdrawn, as it is by Adorno and Horkheimer."[2]

Other notable critics of the Frankfurt School include Henryk Grossman, Umberto Eco and Mike Godwin.

1. ^ "Origin Myths in the Social Sciences: Fromm, the Frankfurt School and the Emergence of Critical Theory: Horkheimer Builds a School".
2. ^ Karl R. Popper: Addendum 1974: THE FRANKFURT SCHOOL. in: The Myth of the Framework. London New York 1994, p. 80

* Andrew Arato & Eike Gebhardt (eds.) "The Essential Frankfurt School Reader" (ISBN 0-8264-0194-5)
* Seyla Benhabib "Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory" (ISBN 0-231-06165-X)
* Tom Bottomore. "The Frankfurt School and its Critics" (ISBN 0-415-28539-9)
* Stephen Eric Bronner and Douglas MacKay Kellner (eds.) "Critical Theory and Society: A Reader" (ISBN 0-415-90041-7)
* Richard A. Brosio. "The Frankfurt School: An Analysis of the Contradictictions and Crises of Liberal Capitalist Societies"
* George Friedman. The Political Philosophy of the Frankfurt School, Ithaca & New York, Cornell University Press, 1981 ISBN 0-8014-1279-X.
* David Held. "Introduction to Critical Theory: Horkheimer to Habermas" (ISBN 0-520-04175-5)
* David Ingram and Julia Simon-Ingram. "Critical Theory: The Essential Readings" (ISBN 1-55778-353-5)
* Martin Jay. The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute for Social Research 1923-1950, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1996 ISBN 0-520-20423-9.
* Marxists Internet Archive. The Frankfort School and "Critical Theory." www.marxists.org
* Neil McLaughlin - Origin Myths in the Social Sciences: Fromm, the Frankfurt School and the Emergence of Critical Theory [1]
* Jeremy J. Shapiro. "The Critical Theory of Frankfurt", in: Times Literary Supplement, No. 3, Oct. 4, 1974, 787. (Material from this publication has been used or adapted for the present article with permission).
* Rudolf J. Siebert. "The Critical Theory of Religion: The Frankfurt School" (ISBN 0-8108-4140-1)
* Rolf Wiggershaus. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories and Political Significance, Cambridge, Mass., The MIT Press, 1995 ISBN 0-262-73113-4.

sumber: Wikipedia
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Culture Industry

Culture industry is a term coined by Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), who argued that popular culture is akin to a factory producing standardized cultural goods to manipulate the masses into passivity; the easy pleasures available through consumption of popular culture make people docile and content, no matter how difficult their economic circumstances. Adorno and Horkheimer saw this mass-produced culture as a danger to the more difficult high arts. Culture industries may cultivate false needs; that is, needs created and satisfied by capitalism. True needs, in contrast, are freedom, creativity, or genuine happiness. This was reference to an earlier demarcation in needs by Herbert Marcuse

The Frankfurt School
Adorno and Horkheimer were key members of the Frankfurt School. They were much influenced by the dialectical materialism and historical materialism of Karl Marx, as well the revisitation of the dialectical idealism of Hegel, in both of which where events are studied not in isolation but as part of the process of change. As a group later joined by Jurgen Habermas, they were responsible for the formulation of Critical Theory. In works such as Dialectic of Enlightenment and Negative Dialectics, Adorno and Horkheimer theorised that the phenomenon of mass culture has a political implication, namely that all the many forms of popular culture are a single culture industry whose purpose is to ensure the continued obedience of the masses to market interests.

The Theory
Although Western culture used to be divided into national markets and then into highbrow, middlebrow and lowbrow, the modern view of mass culture is that there is a single marketplace in which the best or most popular works succeed. This recognizes that the consolidation of media companies has centralized power in the hands of the few remaining multinational corporations now controlling production and distribution. The theory proposes that culture not only mirrors society, but also takes an important role in shaping society through the processes of standardization and commodification, creating objects rather than subjects. The culture industry claims to serve the consumers' needs for entertainment, but conceals the way that it standardizes these needs, manipulating the consumers to desire what it produces. The outcome is that mass production feeds a mass market that minimizes the identity and tastes of the individual consumers who are as interchangeable as the products they consume. The rationale of the theory is to promote the emancipation of the consumer from the tyranny of the producers by inducing the consumer to question beliefs and ideologies. Adorno claimed that enlightenment would bring pluralism and demystification. Unfortunately, society is said to have suffered another fall, corrupted by capitalist industry with exploitative motives.

Anything made by a person is a materialisation of their labour and an expression of their intentions. There will also be a use value: the benefit to the consumer will be derived from its utility. The exchange value will reflect its utility and the conditions of the market: the prices paid by the television broadcaster or at the box office. Yet, the modern soap operas with their interchangeable plots and formulaic narrative conventions reflect standardised production techniques and the falling value of a mass produced cultural product. Only rarely is a film released that makes a more positive impression on the general discourse and achieves a higher exchange value, e.g. Patton (1970) starring George C. Scott as the eponymous American general, was released at a time of considerable anti-war sentiment. The opening shot is of Patton in front of an American flag making an impassioned speech. This was a form of dialectic in which the audience could identify with the patriotism either sincerely (the thesis) or ironically (the antithesis) and so set the tone of the interpretation for the remainder of the film. However, the film is manipulating specific historical events, not only as entertainment, but also as a form of propaganda by demonstrating a link between success in strategic resource management situations and specified leadership qualities. Given that the subtext was instrumental and not "value free", ethical and philosophical considerations arise.

Normally, only high art criticises the world outside its boundaries, but access to this form of communication is limited to the elite classes where the risks of introducing social instability are slight. A film like Patton is popular art which intends controversy in a world of social order and unity which, according to Adorno, is regressing into a cultural blandness. To Hegel, order is good a priori, i.e. it does not have to answer to those living under it. But, if order is disturbed? In Negative Dialectics, Adorno believed this tended towards progress by stimulating the possibility of class conflict. Marx's theory of Historical Materialism was teleological, i.e. society follows through a dialectic of unfolding stages from ancient modes of production to feudalism to capitalism to a future communism. But Adorno felt that the culture industry would never permit a sufficient core of challenging material to emerge on to the market that might disturb the status quo and stimulate the final communist state to emerge.

Critics of the theory say that the products of mass culture would not be popular if people did not enjoy them, and that culture is self-determining in its administration. This would deny Adorno contemporary political significance, arguing that politics in a prosperous society is more concerned with action than with thought. Wiggershaus (1994) notes that the young generation of critical theorists largely ignore Adorno's work which, in part, stems from Adorno’s inability to draw practical conclusions from his theories. Adorno is also accused of a lack of consistency in his claims to be implementing Marxism. Whereas he accepted the classical Marxist analysis of society showing how one class exercises domination over another, he deviated from Marx in his failure to use dialectic as a method to propose ways to change. Marx's theory depended on the willingness of the working class to overthrow the ruling class, but Adorno and Horkheimer postulated that the culture industry has undermined the revolutionary movement. Adorno's idea that the mass of the people are only objects of the culture industry is linked to his feeling that the time when the working class could be the tool of overthrowing capitalism is over. Other critics note that "High culture" too is not exempt from a role in the justification of capitalism. The establishment and reinforcement of elitism is seen by these critics as a key element in the role of opera, ballet, etc.

However, despite these problems, the concept has influenced intellectual discourse on popular culture, popular culture studies, and Cultural Institutions Studies.

In popular culture

* The hip hop band Philadelphia Slick titled their 2007 album, Culture Industry in reference to Adorno's work.


* Adorno, T. W. Negative Dialectics. New York: The Seabury Press. (1973)
* Adorno, T.W. A Sample of Adorno's ideas on the culture industry and popular music
* Adorno, T., & Horkheimer, M. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Stanford University Press (2002)
* Cook, D. The Culture Industry Revisited. Rowman & Littlefield. (1996)
* Hesmondhalgh, D. The Cultural Industries. Sage. (2002)
* Steinert, H. Culture Industry. Cambridge: Polity (2003)
* Wiggershaus, R. The Frankfurt School: its History, Theories, and Political Significance. MIT Press. (1994)
* Witkin, R.W. Adorno on Popular Culture. Routledge. (2003)
* Scott, Allen J. The Cultural Economy of Cities. Sage. (2001)

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